The following useful handlers are provided in the package. Note that three of the handlers (StreamHandler, FileHandler and NullHandler) are actually defined in the logging module itself, but have been documented here along with the other handlers.
The StreamHandler class, located in the core logging package, sends logging output to streams such as sys.stdout, sys.stderr or any file-like object (or, more precisely, any object which supports write() and flush() methods).
Returns a new instance of the StreamHandler class. If stream is specified, the instance will use it for logging output; otherwise, sys.stderr will be used.
If a formatter is specified, it is used to format the record. The record is then written to the stream with a terminator. If exception information is present, it is formatted using traceback.print_exception() and appended to the stream.
Changed in version 3.2: The StreamHandler class now has a terminator attribute, default value '\n', which is used as the terminator when writing a formatted record to a stream. If you don’t want this newline termination, you can set the handler instance’s terminator attribute to the empty string. In earlier versions, the terminator was hardcoded as '\n'.
Returns a new instance of the FileHandler class. The specified file is opened and used as the stream for logging. If mode is not specified, 'a' is used. If encoding is not None, it is used to open the file with that encoding. If delay is true, then file opening is deferred until the first call to emit(). By default, the file grows indefinitely.
Closes the file.
Outputs the record to the file.
New in version 3.1.
Returns a new instance of the NullHandler class.
This method does nothing.
This method does nothing.
This method returns None for the lock, since there is no underlying I/O to which access needs to be serialized.
A file change can happen because of usage of programs such as newsyslog and logrotate which perform log file rotation. This handler, intended for use under Unix/Linux, watches the file to see if it has changed since the last emit. (A file is deemed to have changed if its device or inode have changed.) If the file has changed, the old file stream is closed, and the file opened to get a new stream.
This handler is not appropriate for use under Windows, because under Windows open log files cannot be moved or renamed - logging opens the files with exclusive locks - and so there is no need for such a handler. Furthermore, ST_INO is not supported under Windows; stat() always returns zero for this value.
Returns a new instance of the WatchedFileHandler class. The specified file is opened and used as the stream for logging. If mode is not specified, 'a' is used. If encoding is not None, it is used to open the file with that encoding. If delay is true, then file opening is deferred until the first call to emit(). By default, the file grows indefinitely.
Outputs the record to the file, but first checks to see if the file has changed. If it has, the existing stream is flushed and closed and the file opened again, before outputting the record to the file.
Returns a new instance of the RotatingFileHandler class. The specified file is opened and used as the stream for logging. If mode is not specified, 'a' is used. If encoding is not None, it is used to open the file with that encoding. If delay is true, then file opening is deferred until the first call to emit(). By default, the file grows indefinitely.
You can use the maxBytes and backupCount values to allow the file to rollover at a predetermined size. When the size is about to be exceeded, the file is closed and a new file is silently opened for output. Rollover occurs whenever the current log file is nearly maxBytes in length; if maxBytes is zero, rollover never occurs. If backupCount is non-zero, the system will save old log files by appending the extensions ‘.1’, ‘.2’ etc., to the filename. For example, with a backupCount of 5 and a base file name of app.log, you would get app.log, app.log.1, app.log.2, up to app.log.5. The file being written to is always app.log. When this file is filled, it is closed and renamed to app.log.1, and if files app.log.1, app.log.2, etc. exist, then they are renamed to app.log.2, app.log.3 etc. respectively.
Does a rollover, as described above.
Outputs the record to the file, catering for rollover as described previously.
Returns a new instance of the TimedRotatingFileHandler class. The specified file is opened and used as the stream for logging. On rotating it also sets the filename suffix. Rotating happens based on the product of when and interval.
You can use the when to specify the type of interval. The list of possible values is below. Note that they are not case sensitive.
|Value||Type of interval|
|'midnight'||Roll over at midnight|
When using weekday-based rotation, specify ‘W0’ for Monday, ‘W1’ for Tuesday, and so on up to ‘W6’ for Sunday. In this case, the value passed for interval isn’t used.
The system will save old log files by appending extensions to the filename. The extensions are date-and-time based, using the strftime format %Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S or a leading portion thereof, depending on the rollover interval.
When computing the next rollover time for the first time (when the handler is created), the last modification time of an existing log file, or else the current time, is used to compute when the next rotation will occur.
If the utc argument is true, times in UTC will be used; otherwise local time is used.
If backupCount is nonzero, at most backupCount files will be kept, and if more would be created when rollover occurs, the oldest one is deleted. The deletion logic uses the interval to determine which files to delete, so changing the interval may leave old files lying around.
If delay is true, then file opening is deferred until the first call to emit().
Does a rollover, as described above.
Outputs the record to the file, catering for rollover as described above.
Returns a new instance of the SocketHandler class intended to communicate with a remote machine whose address is given by host and port.
Closes the socket.
Pickles the record’s attribute dictionary and writes it to the socket in binary format. If there is an error with the socket, silently drops the packet. If the connection was previously lost, re-establishes the connection. To unpickle the record at the receiving end into a LogRecord, use the makeLogRecord() function.
Handles an error which has occurred during emit(). The most likely cause is a lost connection. Closes the socket so that we can retry on the next event.
This is a factory method which allows subclasses to define the precise type of socket they want. The default implementation creates a TCP socket (socket.SOCK_STREAM).
Pickles the record’s attribute dictionary in binary format with a length prefix, and returns it ready for transmission across the socket.
Note that pickles aren’t completely secure. If you are concerned about security, you may want to override this method to implement a more secure mechanism. For example, you can sign pickles using HMAC and then verify them on the receiving end, or alternatively you can disable unpickling of global objects on the receiving end.
Send a pickled string packet to the socket. This function allows for partial sends which can happen when the network is busy.
Tries to create a socket; on failure, uses an exponential back-off algorithm. On intial failure, the handler will drop the message it was trying to send. When subsequent messages are handled by the same instance, it will not try connecting until some time has passed. The default parameters are such that the initial delay is one second, and if after that delay the connection still can’t be made, the handler will double the delay each time up to a maximum of 30 seconds.
This behaviour is controlled by the following handler attributes:
This means that if the remote listener starts up after the handler has been used, you could lose messages (since the handler won’t even attempt a connection until the delay has elapsed, but just silently drop messages during the delay period).
Returns a new instance of the DatagramHandler class intended to communicate with a remote machine whose address is given by host and port.
Pickles the record’s attribute dictionary and writes it to the socket in binary format. If there is an error with the socket, silently drops the packet. To unpickle the record at the receiving end into a LogRecord, use the makeLogRecord() function.
Send a pickled string to a socket.
Returns a new instance of the SysLogHandler class intended to communicate with a remote Unix machine whose address is given by address in the form of a (host, port) tuple. If address is not specified, ('localhost', 514) is used. The address is used to open a socket. An alternative to providing a (host, port) tuple is providing an address as a string, for example ‘/dev/log’. In this case, a Unix domain socket is used to send the message to the syslog. If facility is not specified, LOG_USER is used. The type of socket opened depends on the socktype argument, which defaults to socket.SOCK_DGRAM and thus opens a UDP socket. To open a TCP socket (for use with the newer syslog daemons such as rsyslog), specify a value of socket.SOCK_STREAM.
Note that if your server is not listening on UDP port 514, SysLogHandler may appear not to work. In that case, check what address you should be using for a domain socket - it’s system dependent. For example, on Linux it’s usually ‘/dev/log’ but on OS/X it’s ‘/var/run/syslog’. You’ll need to check your platform and use the appropriate address (you may need to do this check at runtime if your application needs to run on several platforms). On Windows, you pretty much have to use the UDP option.
Changed in version 3.2: socktype was added.
Closes the socket to the remote host.
The record is formatted, and then sent to the syslog server. If exception information is present, it is not sent to the server.
Changed in version 3.2.1: (See: issue 12168.) In earlier versions, the message sent to the syslog daemons was always terminated with a NUL byte, because early versions of these daemons expected a NUL terminated message - even though it’s not in the relevant specification (RF 5424). More recent versions of these daemons don’t expect the NUL byte but strip it off if it’s there, and even more recent daemons (which adhere more closely to RFC 5424) pass the NUL byte on as part of the message.
To enable easier handling of syslog messages in the face of all these differing daemon behaviours, the appending of the NUL byte has been made configurable, through the use of a class-level attribute, append_nul. This defaults to True (preserving the existing behaviour) but can be set to False on a SysLogHandler instance in order for that instance to not append the NUL terminator.
Encodes the facility and priority into an integer. You can pass in strings or integers - if strings are passed, internal mapping dictionaries are used to convert them to integers.
The symbolic LOG_ values are defined in SysLogHandler and mirror the values defined in the sys/syslog.h header file.
|Name (string)||Symbolic value|
|crit or critical||LOG_CRIT|
|emerg or panic||LOG_EMERG|
|err or error||LOG_ERR|
|warn or warning||LOG_WARNING|
|Name (string)||Symbolic value|
Maps a logging level name to a syslog priority name. You may need to override this if you are using custom levels, or if the default algorithm is not suitable for your needs. The default algorithm maps DEBUG, INFO, WARNING, ERROR and CRITICAL to the equivalent syslog names, and all other level names to ‘warning’.
The NTEventLogHandler class, located in the logging.handlers module, supports sending logging messages to a local Windows NT, Windows 2000 or Windows XP event log. Before you can use it, you need Mark Hammond’s Win32 extensions for Python installed.
Returns a new instance of the NTEventLogHandler class. The appname is used to define the application name as it appears in the event log. An appropriate registry entry is created using this name. The dllname should give the fully qualified pathname of a .dll or .exe which contains message definitions to hold in the log (if not specified, 'win32service.pyd' is used - this is installed with the Win32 extensions and contains some basic placeholder message definitions. Note that use of these placeholders will make your event logs big, as the entire message source is held in the log. If you want slimmer logs, you have to pass in the name of your own .dll or .exe which contains the message definitions you want to use in the event log). The logtype is one of 'Application', 'System' or 'Security', and defaults to 'Application'.
At this point, you can remove the application name from the registry as a source of event log entries. However, if you do this, you will not be able to see the events as you intended in the Event Log Viewer - it needs to be able to access the registry to get the .dll name. The current version does not do this.
Determines the message ID, event category and event type, and then logs the message in the NT event log.
Returns the event category for the record. Override this if you want to specify your own categories. This version returns 0.
Returns the event type for the record. Override this if you want to specify your own types. This version does a mapping using the handler’s typemap attribute, which is set up in __init__() to a dictionary which contains mappings for DEBUG, INFO, WARNING, ERROR and CRITICAL. If you are using your own levels, you will either need to override this method or place a suitable dictionary in the handler’s typemap attribute.
Returns the message ID for the record. If you are using your own messages, you could do this by having the msg passed to the logger being an ID rather than a format string. Then, in here, you could use a dictionary lookup to get the message ID. This version returns 1, which is the base message ID in win32service.pyd.
Returns a new instance of the SMTPHandler class. The instance is initialized with the from and to addresses and subject line of the email. The toaddrs should be a list of strings. To specify a non-standard SMTP port, use the (host, port) tuple format for the mailhost argument. If you use a string, the standard SMTP port is used. If your SMTP server requires authentication, you can specify a (username, password) tuple for the credentials argument.
To specify the use of a secure protocol (TLS), pass in a tuple to the secure argument. This will only be used when authentication credentials are supplied. The tuple should be either an empty tuple, or a single-value tuple with the name of a keyfile, or a 2-value tuple with the names of the keyfile and certificate file. (This tuple is passed to the smtplib.SMTP.starttls() method.)
Formats the record and sends it to the specified addressees.
If you want to specify a subject line which is record-dependent, override this method.
The MemoryHandler class, located in the logging.handlers module, supports buffering of logging records in memory, periodically flushing them to a target handler. Flushing occurs whenever the buffer is full, or when an event of a certain severity or greater is seen.
MemoryHandler is a subclass of the more general BufferingHandler, which is an abstract class. This buffers logging records in memory. Whenever each record is added to the buffer, a check is made by calling shouldFlush() to see if the buffer should be flushed. If it should, then flush() is expected to do the flushing.
Initializes the handler with a buffer of the specified capacity.
You can override this to implement custom flushing behavior. This version just zaps the buffer to empty.
Returns true if the buffer is up to capacity. This method can be overridden to implement custom flushing strategies.
Returns a new instance of the MemoryHandler class. The instance is initialized with a buffer size of capacity. If flushLevel is not specified, ERROR is used. If no target is specified, the target will need to be set using setTarget() before this handler does anything useful.
For a MemoryHandler, flushing means just sending the buffered records to the target, if there is one. The buffer is also cleared when this happens. Override if you want different behavior.
Sets the target handler for this handler.
Checks for buffer full or a record at the flushLevel or higher.
Returns a new instance of the HTTPHandler class. The host can be of the form host:port, should you need to use a specific port number. If no method is specified, GET is used. If secure is True, an HTTPS connection will be used. If credentials is specified, it should be a 2-tuple consisting of userid and password, which will be placed in an HTTP ‘Authorization’ header using Basic authentication. If you specify credentials, you should also specify secure=True so that your userid and password are not passed in cleartext across the wire.
Sends the record to the Web server as a percent-encoded dictionary.
New in version 3.2.
Along with the QueueListener class, QueueHandler can be used to let handlers do their work on a separate thread from the one which does the logging. This is important in Web applications and also other service applications where threads servicing clients need to respond as quickly as possible, while any potentially slow operations (such as sending an email via SMTPHandler) are done on a separate thread.
Returns a new instance of the QueueHandler class. The instance is initialized with the queue to send messages to. The queue can be any queue- like object; it’s used as-is by the enqueue() method, which needs to know how to send messages to it.
Enqueues the result of preparing the LogRecord.
Prepares a record for queuing. The object returned by this method is enqueued.
The base implementation formats the record to merge the message and arguments, and removes unpickleable items from the record in-place.
You might want to override this method if you want to convert the record to a dict or JSON string, or send a modified copy of the record while leaving the original intact.
Enqueues the record on the queue using put_nowait(); you may want to override this if you want to use blocking behaviour, or a timeout, or a customised queue implementation.
New in version 3.2.
The QueueListener class, located in the logging.handlers module, supports receiving logging messages from a queue, such as those implemented in the queue or multiprocessing modules. The messages are received from a queue in an internal thread and passed, on the same thread, to one or more handlers for processing. While QueueListener is not itself a handler, it is documented here because it works hand-in-hand with QueueHandler.
Along with the QueueHandler class, QueueListener can be used to let handlers do their work on a separate thread from the one which does the logging. This is important in Web applications and also other service applications where threads servicing clients need to respond as quickly as possible, while any potentially slow operations (such as sending an email via SMTPHandler) are done on a separate thread.
Returns a new instance of the QueueListener class. The instance is initialized with the queue to send messages to and a list of handlers which will handle entries placed on the queue. The queue can be any queue- like object; it’s passed as-is to the dequeue() method, which needs to know how to get messages from it.
Dequeues a record and return it, optionally blocking.
The base implementation uses get(). You may want to override this method if you want to use timeouts or work with custom queue implementations.
Prepare a record for handling.
This implementation just returns the passed-in record. You may want to override this method if you need to do any custom marshalling or manipulation of the record before passing it to the handlers.
Handle a record.
This just loops through the handlers offering them the record to handle. The actual object passed to the handlers is that which is returned from prepare().
Starts the listener.
This starts up a background thread to monitor the queue for LogRecords to process.
Stops the listener.
This asks the thread to terminate, and then waits for it to do so. Note that if you don’t call this before your application exits, there may be some records still left on the queue, which won’t be processed.