Importing Modules

PyObject* PyImport_ImportModule(const char *name)
Return value: New reference.

This is a simplified interface to PyImport_ImportModuleEx() below, leaving the globals and locals arguments set to NULL and level set to 0. When the name argument contains a dot (when it specifies a submodule of a package), the fromlist argument is set to the list ['*'] so that the return value is the named module rather than the top-level package containing it as would otherwise be the case. (Unfortunately, this has an additional side effect when name in fact specifies a subpackage instead of a submodule: the submodules specified in the package’s __all__ variable are loaded.) Return a new reference to the imported module, or NULL with an exception set on failure. A failing import of a module doesn’t leave the module in sys.modules.

This function always uses absolute imports.

PyObject* PyImport_ImportModuleNoBlock(const char *name)

This function is a deprecated alias of PyImport_ImportModule().

Changed in version 3.3: This function used to fail immediately when the import lock was held by another thread. In Python 3.3 though, the locking scheme switched to per-module locks for most purposes, so this function’s special behaviour isn’t needed anymore.

PyObject* PyImport_ImportModuleEx(char *name, PyObject *globals, PyObject *locals, PyObject *fromlist)
Return value: New reference.

Import a module. This is best described by referring to the built-in Python function __import__().

The return value is a new reference to the imported module or top-level package, or NULL with an exception set on failure. Like for __import__(), the return value when a submodule of a package was requested is normally the top-level package, unless a non-empty fromlist was given.

Failing imports remove incomplete module objects, like with PyImport_ImportModule().

PyObject* PyImport_ImportModuleLevelObject(PyObject *name, PyObject *globals, PyObject *locals, PyObject *fromlist, int level)

Import a module. This is best described by referring to the built-in Python function __import__(), as the standard __import__() function calls this function directly.

The return value is a new reference to the imported module or top-level package, or NULL with an exception set on failure. Like for __import__(), the return value when a submodule of a package was requested is normally the top-level package, unless a non-empty fromlist was given.

New in version 3.3.

PyObject* PyImport_ImportModuleLevel(char *name, PyObject *globals, PyObject *locals, PyObject *fromlist, int level)
Return value: New reference.

Similar to PyImport_ImportModuleLevelObject(), but the name is an UTF-8 encoded string instead of a Unicode object.

Changed in version 3.3: Negative values for level are no longer accepted.

PyObject* PyImport_Import(PyObject *name)
Return value: New reference.

This is a higher-level interface that calls the current “import hook function” (with an explicit level of 0, meaning absolute import). It invokes the __import__() function from the __builtins__ of the current globals. This means that the import is done using whatever import hooks are installed in the current environment.

This function always uses absolute imports.

PyObject* PyImport_ReloadModule(PyObject *m)
Return value: New reference.

Reload a module. Return a new reference to the reloaded module, or NULL with an exception set on failure (the module still exists in this case).

PyObject* PyImport_AddModuleObject(PyObject *name)

Return the module object corresponding to a module name. The name argument may be of the form package.module. First check the modules dictionary if there’s one there, and if not, create a new one and insert it in the modules dictionary. Return NULL with an exception set on failure.

Note

This function does not load or import the module; if the module wasn’t already loaded, you will get an empty module object. Use PyImport_ImportModule() or one of its variants to import a module. Package structures implied by a dotted name for name are not created if not already present.

New in version 3.3.

PyObject* PyImport_AddModule(const char *name)
Return value: Borrowed reference.

Similar to PyImport_AddModuleObject(), but the name is a UTF-8 encoded string instead of a Unicode object.

PyObject* PyImport_ExecCodeModule(const char *name, PyObject *co)
Return value: New reference.

Given a module name (possibly of the form package.module) and a code object read from a Python bytecode file or obtained from the built-in function compile(), load the module. Return a new reference to the module object, or NULL with an exception set if an error occurred. name is removed from sys.modules in error cases, even if name was already in sys.modules on entry to PyImport_ExecCodeModule(). Leaving incompletely initialized modules in sys.modules is dangerous, as imports of such modules have no way to know that the module object is an unknown (and probably damaged with respect to the module author’s intents) state.

The module’s __file__ attribute will be set to the code object’s co_filename.

This function will reload the module if it was already imported. See PyImport_ReloadModule() for the intended way to reload a module.

If name points to a dotted name of the form package.module, any package structures not already created will still not be created.

See also PyImport_ExecCodeModuleEx() and PyImport_ExecCodeModuleWithPathnames().

PyObject* PyImport_ExecCodeModuleEx(const char *name, PyObject *co, const char *pathname)
Return value: New reference.

Like PyImport_ExecCodeModule(), but the __file__ attribute of the module object is set to pathname if it is non-NULL.

See also PyImport_ExecCodeModuleWithPathnames().

PyObject* PyImport_ExecCodeModuleObject(PyObject *name, PyObject *co, PyObject *pathname, PyObject *cpathname)

Like PyImport_ExecCodeModuleEx(), but the __cached__ attribute of the module object is set to cpathname if it is non-NULL. Of the three functions, this is the preferred one to use.

New in version 3.3.

PyObject* PyImport_ExecCodeModuleWithPathnames(const char *name, PyObject *co, const char *pathname, const char *cpathname)

Like PyImport_ExecCodeModuleObject(), but name, pathname and cpathname are UTF-8 encoded strings. Attempts are also made to figure out what the value for pathname should be from cpathname if the former is set to NULL.

New in version 3.2.

Changed in version 3.3: Uses imp.source_from_cache() in calculating the source path if only the bytecode path is provided.

long PyImport_GetMagicNumber()

Return the magic number for Python bytecode files (a.k.a. .pyc and .pyo files). The magic number should be present in the first four bytes of the bytecode file, in little-endian byte order. Returns -1 on error.

Changed in version 3.3: Return value of -1 upon failure.

const char * PyImport_GetMagicTag()

Return the magic tag string for PEP 3147 format Python bytecode file names. Keep in mind that the value at sys.implementation.cache_tag is authoritative and should be used instead of this function.

New in version 3.2.

PyObject* PyImport_GetModuleDict()
Return value: Borrowed reference.

Return the dictionary used for the module administration (a.k.a. sys.modules). Note that this is a per-interpreter variable.

PyObject* PyImport_GetImporter(PyObject *path)

Return an importer object for a sys.path/pkg.__path__ item path, possibly by fetching it from the sys.path_importer_cache dict. If it wasn’t yet cached, traverse sys.path_hooks until a hook is found that can handle the path item. Return None if no hook could; this tells our caller it should fall back to the built-in import mechanism. Cache the result in sys.path_importer_cache. Return a new reference to the importer object.

void _PyImport_Init()

Initialize the import mechanism. For internal use only.

void PyImport_Cleanup()

Empty the module table. For internal use only.

void _PyImport_Fini()

Finalize the import mechanism. For internal use only.

PyObject* _PyImport_FindExtension(char *, char *)

For internal use only.

PyObject* _PyImport_FixupExtension(char *, char *)

For internal use only.

int PyImport_ImportFrozenModuleObject(PyObject *name)

Load a frozen module named name. Return 1 for success, 0 if the module is not found, and -1 with an exception set if the initialization failed. To access the imported module on a successful load, use PyImport_ImportModule(). (Note the misnomer — this function would reload the module if it was already imported.)

New in version 3.3.

int PyImport_ImportFrozenModule(const char *name)

Similar to PyImport_ImportFrozenModuleObject(), but the name is a UTF-8 encoded string instead of a Unicode object.

struct _frozen

This is the structure type definition for frozen module descriptors, as generated by the freeze utility (see Tools/freeze/ in the Python source distribution). Its definition, found in Include/import.h, is:

struct _frozen {
    char *name;
    unsigned char *code;
    int size;
};
struct _frozen* PyImport_FrozenModules

This pointer is initialized to point to an array of struct _frozen records, terminated by one whose members are all NULL or zero. When a frozen module is imported, it is searched in this table. Third-party code could play tricks with this to provide a dynamically created collection of frozen modules.

int PyImport_AppendInittab(const char *name, PyObject* (*initfunc)(void))

Add a single module to the existing table of built-in modules. This is a convenience wrapper around PyImport_ExtendInittab(), returning -1 if the table could not be extended. The new module can be imported by the name name, and uses the function initfunc as the initialization function called on the first attempted import. This should be called before Py_Initialize().

struct _inittab

Structure describing a single entry in the list of built-in modules. Each of these structures gives the name and initialization function for a module built into the interpreter. The name is an ASCII encoded string. Programs which embed Python may use an array of these structures in conjunction with PyImport_ExtendInittab() to provide additional built-in modules. The structure is defined in Include/import.h as:

struct _inittab {
    char *name;                 /* ASCII encoded string */
    PyObject* (*initfunc)(void);
};
int PyImport_ExtendInittab(struct _inittab *newtab)

Add a collection of modules to the table of built-in modules. The newtab array must end with a sentinel entry which contains NULL for the name field; failure to provide the sentinel value can result in a memory fault. Returns 0 on success or -1 if insufficient memory could be allocated to extend the internal table. In the event of failure, no modules are added to the internal table. This should be called before Py_Initialize().

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