21.13. ftplib — FTP protocol client

Source code: Lib/ftplib.py


This module defines the class FTP and a few related items. The FTP class implements the client side of the FTP protocol. You can use this to write Python programs that perform a variety of automated FTP jobs, such as mirroring other ftp servers. It is also used by the module urllib.request to handle URLs that use FTP. For more information on FTP (File Transfer Protocol), see Internet RFC 959.

Here’s a sample session using the ftplib module:

>>> from ftplib import FTP
>>> ftp = FTP('ftp.debian.org')     # connect to host, default port
>>> ftp.login()                     # user anonymous, passwd anonymous@
'230 Login successful.'
>>> ftp.cwd('debian')               # change into "debian" directory
>>> ftp.retrlines('LIST')           # list directory contents
-rw-rw-r--    1 1176     1176         1063 Jun 15 10:18 README
...
drwxr-sr-x    5 1176     1176         4096 Dec 19  2000 pool
drwxr-sr-x    4 1176     1176         4096 Nov 17  2008 project
drwxr-xr-x    3 1176     1176         4096 Oct 10  2012 tools
'226 Directory send OK.'
>>> ftp.retrbinary('RETR README', open('README', 'wb').write)
'226 Transfer complete.'
>>> ftp.quit()

The module defines the following items:

class ftplib.FTP(host='', user='', passwd='', acct='', timeout=None, source_address=None)

Return a new instance of the FTP class. When host is given, the method call connect(host) is made. When user is given, additionally the method call login(user, passwd, acct) is made (where passwd and acct default to the empty string when not given). The optional timeout parameter specifies a timeout in seconds for blocking operations like the connection attempt (if is not specified, the global default timeout setting will be used). source_address is a 2-tuple (host, port) for the socket to bind to as its source address before connecting.

FTP class supports the with statement. Here is a sample on how using it:

>>> from ftplib import FTP
>>> with FTP("ftp1.at.proftpd.org") as ftp:
...     ftp.login()
...     ftp.dir()
...
'230 Anonymous login ok, restrictions apply.'
dr-xr-xr-x   9 ftp      ftp           154 May  6 10:43 .
dr-xr-xr-x   9 ftp      ftp           154 May  6 10:43 ..
dr-xr-xr-x   5 ftp      ftp          4096 May  6 10:43 CentOS
dr-xr-xr-x   3 ftp      ftp            18 Jul 10  2008 Fedora
>>>

Changed in version 3.2: Support for the with statement was added.

Changed in version 3.3: source_address parameter was added.

class ftplib.FTP_TLS(host='', user='', passwd='', acct='', keyfile=None, certfile=None, context=None, timeout=None, source_address=None)

A FTP subclass which adds TLS support to FTP as described in RFC 4217. Connect as usual to port 21 implicitly securing the FTP control connection before authenticating. Securing the data connection requires the user to explicitly ask for it by calling the prot_p() method. keyfile and certfile are optional – they can contain a PEM formatted private key and certificate chain file name for the SSL connection. context parameter is a ssl.SSLContext object which allows bundling SSL configuration options, certificates and private keys into a single (potentially long-lived) structure. source_address is a 2-tuple (host, port) for the socket to bind to as its source address before connecting.

New in version 3.2.

Changed in version 3.3: source_address parameter was added.

Changed in version 3.4: The class now supports hostname check with SSLContext.check_hostname and Server Name Indicator (see HAS_SNI).

Here’s a sample session using the FTP_TLS class:

>>> from ftplib import FTP_TLS
>>> ftps = FTP_TLS('ftp.python.org')
>>> ftps.login()           # login anonymously before securing control channel
>>> ftps.prot_p()          # switch to secure data connection
>>> ftps.retrlines('LIST') # list directory content securely
total 9
drwxr-xr-x   8 root     wheel        1024 Jan  3  1994 .
drwxr-xr-x   8 root     wheel        1024 Jan  3  1994 ..
drwxr-xr-x   2 root     wheel        1024 Jan  3  1994 bin
drwxr-xr-x   2 root     wheel        1024 Jan  3  1994 etc
d-wxrwxr-x   2 ftp      wheel        1024 Sep  5 13:43 incoming
drwxr-xr-x   2 root     wheel        1024 Nov 17  1993 lib
drwxr-xr-x   6 1094     wheel        1024 Sep 13 19:07 pub
drwxr-xr-x   3 root     wheel        1024 Jan  3  1994 usr
-rw-r--r--   1 root     root          312 Aug  1  1994 welcome.msg
'226 Transfer complete.'
>>> ftps.quit()
>>>
exception ftplib.error_reply

Exception raised when an unexpected reply is received from the server.

exception ftplib.error_temp

Exception raised when an error code signifying a temporary error (response codes in the range 400–499) is received.

exception ftplib.error_perm

Exception raised when an error code signifying a permanent error (response codes in the range 500–599) is received.

exception ftplib.error_proto

Exception raised when a reply is received from the server that does not fit the response specifications of the File Transfer Protocol, i.e. begin with a digit in the range 1–5.

ftplib.all_errors

The set of all exceptions (as a tuple) that methods of FTP instances may raise as a result of problems with the FTP connection (as opposed to programming errors made by the caller). This set includes the four exceptions listed above as well as OSError.

See also

Module netrc
Parser for the .netrc file format. The file .netrc is typically used by FTP clients to load user authentication information before prompting the user.

The file Tools/scripts/ftpmirror.py in the Python source distribution is a script that can mirror FTP sites, or portions thereof, using the ftplib module. It can be used as an extended example that applies this module.

21.13.1. FTP Objects

Several methods are available in two flavors: one for handling text files and another for binary files. These are named for the command which is used followed by lines for the text version or binary for the binary version.

FTP instances have the following methods:

FTP.set_debuglevel(level)

Set the instance’s debugging level. This controls the amount of debugging output printed. The default, 0, produces no debugging output. A value of 1 produces a moderate amount of debugging output, generally a single line per request. A value of 2 or higher produces the maximum amount of debugging output, logging each line sent and received on the control connection.

FTP.connect(host='', port=0, timeout=None, source_address=None)

Connect to the given host and port. The default port number is 21, as specified by the FTP protocol specification. It is rarely needed to specify a different port number. This function should be called only once for each instance; it should not be called at all if a host was given when the instance was created. All other methods can only be used after a connection has been made. The optional timeout parameter specifies a timeout in seconds for the connection attempt. If no timeout is passed, the global default timeout setting will be used. source_address is a 2-tuple (host, port) for the socket to bind to as its source address before connecting.

Changed in version 3.3: source_address parameter was added.

FTP.getwelcome()

Return the welcome message sent by the server in reply to the initial connection. (This message sometimes contains disclaimers or help information that may be relevant to the user.)

FTP.login(user='anonymous', passwd='', acct='')

Log in as the given user. The passwd and acct parameters are optional and default to the empty string. If no user is specified, it defaults to 'anonymous'. If user is 'anonymous', the default passwd is 'anonymous@'. This function should be called only once for each instance, after a connection has been established; it should not be called at all if a host and user were given when the instance was created. Most FTP commands are only allowed after the client has logged in. The acct parameter supplies “accounting information”; few systems implement this.

FTP.abort()

Abort a file transfer that is in progress. Using this does not always work, but it’s worth a try.

FTP.sendcmd(cmd)

Send a simple command string to the server and return the response string.

FTP.voidcmd(cmd)

Send a simple command string to the server and handle the response. Return nothing if a response code corresponding to success (codes in the range 200–299) is received. Raise error_reply otherwise.

FTP.retrbinary(cmd, callback, blocksize=8192, rest=None)

Retrieve a file in binary transfer mode. cmd should be an appropriate RETR command: 'RETR filename'. The callback function is called for each block of data received, with a single string argument giving the data block. The optional blocksize argument specifies the maximum chunk size to read on the low-level socket object created to do the actual transfer (which will also be the largest size of the data blocks passed to callback). A reasonable default is chosen. rest means the same thing as in the transfercmd() method.

FTP.retrlines(cmd, callback=None)

Retrieve a file or directory listing in ASCII transfer mode. cmd should be an appropriate RETR command (see retrbinary()) or a command such as LIST or NLST (usually just the string 'LIST'). LIST retrieves a list of files and information about those files. NLST retrieves a list of file names. The callback function is called for each line with a string argument containing the line with the trailing CRLF stripped. The default callback prints the line to sys.stdout.

FTP.set_pasv(boolean)

Enable “passive” mode if boolean is true, other disable passive mode. Passive mode is on by default.

FTP.storbinary(cmd, file, blocksize=8192, callback=None, rest=None)

Store a file in binary transfer mode. cmd should be an appropriate STOR command: "STOR filename". file is a file object (opened in binary mode) which is read until EOF using its read() method in blocks of size blocksize to provide the data to be stored. The blocksize argument defaults to 8192. callback is an optional single parameter callable that is called on each block of data after it is sent. rest means the same thing as in the transfercmd() method.

Changed in version 3.2: rest parameter added.

FTP.storlines(cmd, file, callback=None)

Store a file in ASCII transfer mode. cmd should be an appropriate STOR command (see storbinary()). Lines are read until EOF from the file object file (opened in binary mode) using its readline() method to provide the data to be stored. callback is an optional single parameter callable that is called on each line after it is sent.

FTP.transfercmd(cmd, rest=None)

Initiate a transfer over the data connection. If the transfer is active, send a EPRT or PORT command and the transfer command specified by cmd, and accept the connection. If the server is passive, send a EPSV or PASV command, connect to it, and start the transfer command. Either way, return the socket for the connection.

If optional rest is given, a REST command is sent to the server, passing rest as an argument. rest is usually a byte offset into the requested file, telling the server to restart sending the file’s bytes at the requested offset, skipping over the initial bytes. Note however that RFC 959 requires only that rest be a string containing characters in the printable range from ASCII code 33 to ASCII code 126. The transfercmd() method, therefore, converts rest to a string, but no check is performed on the string’s contents. If the server does not recognize the REST command, an error_reply exception will be raised. If this happens, simply call transfercmd() without a rest argument.

FTP.ntransfercmd(cmd, rest=None)

Like transfercmd(), but returns a tuple of the data connection and the expected size of the data. If the expected size could not be computed, None will be returned as the expected size. cmd and rest means the same thing as in transfercmd().

FTP.mlsd(path="", facts=[])

List a directory in a standardized format by using MLSD command (RFC 3659). If path is omitted the current directory is assumed. facts is a list of strings representing the type of information desired (e.g. ["type", "size", "perm"]). Return a generator object yielding a tuple of two elements for every file found in path. First element is the file name, the second one is a dictionary containing facts about the file name. Content of this dictionary might be limited by the facts argument but server is not guaranteed to return all requested facts.

New in version 3.3.

FTP.nlst(argument[, ...])

Return a list of file names as returned by the NLST command. The optional argument is a directory to list (default is the current server directory). Multiple arguments can be used to pass non-standard options to the NLST command.

Deprecated since version 3.3: use mlsd() instead.

FTP.dir(argument[, ...])

Produce a directory listing as returned by the LIST command, printing it to standard output. The optional argument is a directory to list (default is the current server directory). Multiple arguments can be used to pass non-standard options to the LIST command. If the last argument is a function, it is used as a callback function as for retrlines(); the default prints to sys.stdout. This method returns None.

Deprecated since version 3.3: use mlsd() instead.

FTP.rename(fromname, toname)

Rename file fromname on the server to toname.

FTP.delete(filename)

Remove the file named filename from the server. If successful, returns the text of the response, otherwise raises error_perm on permission errors or error_reply on other errors.

FTP.cwd(pathname)

Set the current directory on the server.

FTP.mkd(pathname)

Create a new directory on the server.

FTP.pwd()

Return the pathname of the current directory on the server.

FTP.rmd(dirname)

Remove the directory named dirname on the server.

FTP.size(filename)

Request the size of the file named filename on the server. On success, the size of the file is returned as an integer, otherwise None is returned. Note that the SIZE command is not standardized, but is supported by many common server implementations.

FTP.quit()

Send a QUIT command to the server and close the connection. This is the “polite” way to close a connection, but it may raise an exception if the server responds with an error to the QUIT command. This implies a call to the close() method which renders the FTP instance useless for subsequent calls (see below).

FTP.close()

Close the connection unilaterally. This should not be applied to an already closed connection such as after a successful call to quit(). After this call the FTP instance should not be used any more (after a call to close() or quit() you cannot reopen the connection by issuing another login() method).

21.13.2. FTP_TLS Objects

FTP_TLS class inherits from FTP, defining these additional objects:

FTP_TLS.ssl_version

The SSL version to use (defaults to TLSv1).

FTP_TLS.auth()

Set up secure control connection by using TLS or SSL, depending on what specified in ssl_version() attribute.

Changed in version 3.4: The method now supports hostname check with SSLContext.check_hostname and Server Name Indicator (see HAS_SNI).

FTP_TLS.ccc()

Revert control channel back to plaintext. This can be useful to take advantage of firewalls that know how to handle NAT with non-secure FTP without opening fixed ports.

New in version 3.3.

FTP_TLS.prot_p()

Set up secure data connection.

FTP_TLS.prot_c()

Set up clear text data connection.

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